Audi diesel targets Bin5, Euro6

Beneath the hood of Audi’s Cross Cabriolet Quattro concept revealed at the Los Angeles Auto Show in November nestled a highly significant development in the international race to produce ever cleaner and efficient but more responsive diesel engines. It was Volkswagen’s new, high-pressure common-rail 3.0-L TDI with integrated cylinder pressure control and Ad Blue exhaust after treatment chnology. Due in production this year, the engine not only produces 176 kW (236 hp) and 500 N.m (369 Ib.ft), but is also claimed to be the cleanest diesel in the world, with exhaust emissions projected at EU6 levels.

Placed longitudinally in the concept, the engine provides an estimated fuel consumption of 7.3 Wl00 km and is described as having “the most elaborate emissions reduction systems developed for a production engine.” An essential element of its ultra-low-emissions system is its exhaust after treatment system with Ad Blue, which will play a major part in achieving Audi’s target to cut NOx by up CO 90% about 0.01 7 gl/km (0.027 gl/mi). Using piezo injectors, the engine’s new common-rail system operates at 2000 bar (29.0 MPa). One of the highlights of the new engine is the use of combustion chamber sensors that enable more precise regulation of the combustion processes.

This is the first time that such sensors have been fitted on any engine in the world, claimed Audi. No CO, figure has been released for the engine, but it is understood that Audi may try to raise the  injection pressure even further, which would bring potential CO, and fuel consumption benefits.

Audi will be able to market its clean direct-injection diesels across the world even into U.S. states with the most stringent emissions limits-including California, New York, Massachusetts, Maine, and Vermont. Starting this year, the new technology will be available across a broadening spectrum of car and power classes. Audi announced at L.A. that, by 2012, it would have reduced the CO, emission of its models by about 20%.

Series production of the new TDI is slated to begin in mid-2008, and first application will be in the Q7, followed by the A4. Installed in the Q7, the engine will return 550 N/m (406 Ib/ft), with 500 N/m (369 Ib/ft) for the A4. An oxidation catalytic converter and particulate filter are both part of the standard
exhaust system of the new engine. “Now, to reduce nitric oxide emissions to a minimum, stage three has been added,” said Zaccheo Giovanni Pamio, the company’s exhaust gas after treatment specialist.

This involves the use of Ad Blue. A 32.5% water-based solution, it is injected into the gas flow after it has passed through the particulate filter. Ammonia is released into the hot exhaust system,  converting the nitric oxides into nitrogen and oxygen in the subsequent DeNox converter.

“Two additional NOx sensors monitor the process and are used by the engine and system anagement to control the amount of Ad Blue injected,” explained Pamio. The NOx sensors are new to an Audi engine. They measure the NOx concentration before the diesel particulate filter and after the DeNox converter to compute the necessary injection volume of Ad Blue. Pressure and temperature sensors monitor the operation of the exhaust gas after treatment system.

Optimal distribution of the requires the solution to be injected in pulses. Released ammonia is used by the downstream catalytic converter, which ; converts NOx into nitrogen and water. For a high rate of conversion, it is important that both the ammonia and gas flow are evenly distributed across the area of the converter inlet. The various sensors play an important part in regulating the Ad Blue injection and in tuning the complete system of the engine and exhaust gas after treatment.

Although fine details of the new Audi engine-including those concerning cylinder pressure control-are limited at present, it represents a significant development, permitting models to undercut the U.S. Bin 5 standard for all states and the limits likely to constitute Euro 6 which will not come into effect until 2014.

Audi says the TDI engine offers a fuel saving of as much as 35% compared to the average fleet consumption of gas-line engines typically fitted in the U.S. As  a consequence, company officials believe that the diesel technology can make a greater contribution to reducing the consumption of fossil fuels of environmentally harmful greenhouse gases than any other form of propulsion currently available.

The latest TDI engine is part of an integrated solution to reduce fuel consumption and emission that underpins Audis new “E” model. To be introduced across much of this range. The cars will have optimized rolling resistance, a reduction in aerodynamic drag, customized gear rations, and redeveloped ancillary units.

The current A3 TDI e achieves 4.505 l/100km in the combined cycle and a CO, emission level  of 119 g/km (192g/km). Other technologies to complement engine efficiency are in development.

On the Cross gearbox mapping are switched to a more economical program in “efficiency” mode, with the power draw of the main consumers and comfort modules restricted. There is also a slight reduction in engine power.

Scribbled on March 19th 2009 in Audi, Miscellaneous, News
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